Natural Resources Canada

The Sky’s the Limit Challenge

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Enerkem has been selected as the winner of the Sky's the Limit Challenge!

Enerkem, based in Montreal, was awarded the $5-million prize under The Sky’s the Limit, which challenged Canadians to develop an affordable, cleaner aviation fuel. Enerkem develops and uses advanced biochemical processes to convert municipal solid waste, as well as forestry and agricultural biomass, into sustainable chemicals and advanced biofuels, including sustainable aviation fuel.


Enerkem is a leading, disruptive, clean technology provider. We produce renewable chemicals and bio fuels using non-recyclable waste and forest biomass.

Enerkem is proud to leverage its Made in Canada disruptive technology to offer an innovative, sustainable solution to reduce the carbon footprint of the aviation industry.

Forge has successfully produced a sustainable aviation fuel that can meet industry demands through a proven lipid into hydrocarbon technology. We produce low carbon cost, competitive, greener, cleaner, renewable diesel, gasoline and aviation fuel.

Our synthetic kerosene allows us to reduce the climate impact of both transportation and heavy industry. We turn clean electricity into fuels. In doing so, our technology allows the reduction of 80 percent in carbon emissions compared to conventional fuels.

We are commercializing direct air capture technology that captures carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide can then be stored safely and permanently back underground where it came from. Or we can combine it with clean hydrogen to create a synthetic crude, which can then be refined into drop-in compatible fuels like sustainable aviation fuel.


Carbon Engineering

  • Project name: Sustainable Aviation Fuel, made from Air, Water and Renewable Electricity
  • Project location: Squamish (British Columbia)

Carbon Engineering (CE) has successfully demonstrated its AIR TO FUELS™ technology that converts atmospheric carbon dioxide, water, and green electricity into ultra-low carbon fuels. CE’s Sky’s the Limit Challenge project will utilize this proven technology to produce clean, drop-in compatible and ultra-low carbon intensity sustainable aviation fuel with minimal impacts on land and water resources.


  • Project name: Sustainable Aviation Fuels from Agro and Forestry Biomass and from Municipal Solid Waste through a Hub and Spoke approach
  • Project location: Westbury (Quebec)

Enerkem and partners across the value chain will work together to produce Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) from forestry biomass and municipal solid waste via two parallel processes: deconstruction and fractionation, and gasification. Our Sky’s the Limit Challenge project will produce SAF which will significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using wastes that would otherwise be landfilled, thereby also creating a circular economy.

FORGE Hydrocarbons

  • Project Name: Lipid-to-Hydrocarbon Biojet Project
  • Project location: Edmonton (Alberta)

As a finalist in the Sky’s the Limit Challenge, FORGE Hydrocarbons will demonstrate their “Lipid to Hydrocarbon”(LTH) technology and its unique ability to produce renewable aviation fuels from waste fat and oil feedstocks.

SAF+ Consortium

  • Project Name: Production of Sustainable Aviation Fuel from flue gas–captured CO2 and low-carbon hydrogen
  • Project location: Montreal (Quebec)

SAF+ Consortium develops an innovative circular economy solution that will capture industry emissions and transform them into clean synthetic fuel with 80% less carbon footprint than conventional jet fuel. Together with our partners AirTransat and Trudeau Airport, we aim to make Montreal into a leading hub for sustainable flying. As part of the Sky’s the Limit Challenge, we are building a pilot unit that will demonstrate the entire process in 2020. 

Challenge details

Who can apply?

Green Aviation Fuels Innovation Competition
  • For-profit and not-for-profit organizations
  • Indigenous organizations and groups
  • Canadian academia
Cross-Canada Flight Competition
  • A biojet producer validly incorporated or registered in Canada

Key Dates

Green Aviation Fuels Innovation Competition
  • Call for proposals deadline: February 1, 2019
  • Four finalists announced: May 29, 2019
  • Final prize submission deadline: August 1, 2021
  • Final prize winner announced: March 30, 2022
Cross-Canada Flight Competition
  • Competition begins: March 1, 2019
  • Competition closes: January 1, 2021


Green Aviation Fuels Innovation Competition
  • Four top teams will win $2 million each to support their plan
  • The Grand Prize of $5 million will help the team with the best green aviation fuel commercialize their innovation
Cross-Canada Flight Competition
  • The first producer to meet all the criteria for their made-in-Canada biojet fuel will win $1 million