Excerpt of NASA-STD-3001: Section 7.1 Food and Nutrition, pp.75-82
NASA-STD-3001, NASA SPACEFLIGHT HUMAN-SYSTEM STANDARD
VOLUME 2, REVISION B: HUMAN FACTORS, HABITABILITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHi
This section has been extracted from the original document and translated with the permission of NASA.
7.1 Food and Nutrition
7.1.1 Food Quality and Quantity
184.108.40.206 Food Quality
[V2 7001] The food system shall provide the capability to maintain food safety and nutrition during all phases of the mission.
[Rationale: A nutritious, viable, and stable food system that the crew is willing and able to consume is critical for maintaining the health of the crew. The viability of the food system requires not only that food be available for consumption but also that the food has the appropriate nutrient mix to maintain crew health over time. The food is to retain its safety, nutrition, and acceptability for any spaceflight concept of operations, be it of short or long duration.]
220.127.116.11 Food Acceptability
[V2 7002] The system shall provide food that is acceptable to the crew for the duration of the mission.
[Rationale: A viable and stable food system that the crew is willing and able to consume is critical for maintaining the health of the crew. The crew’s willingness to consume these nutrients is impacted by the variety and flavor of the food. Food can lose its acceptance if eaten too frequently, so a variety of foods may offer a solution. The form, texture, and flavor of food are also important for adding variety, as long as nutritional content is not affected.
The dynamics of spaceflight present numerous challenges to food acceptability. A NASA food item measuring an overall acceptability rating of 6.0 or better on a 9-point hedonic scale for the duration of the mission is considered acceptable. The hedonic scale is a quantitative method that is accepted throughout the food science industry as a means to determine acceptability. Further information regarding methods for determining food acceptability can be found in Meilgaard, M., et al. (1999). Food freshness will impact acceptability over time; thus, it is imperative to provide acceptable food initially and a packaging and storage system that will maintain this freshness. Alternatives include growing food or providing basic ingredients and allowing flexibility in their combination and preparation.]
18.104.22.168 Food Caloric Content
[V2 7003] The food system shall provide each crewmember with a minimum number of calories per day, based upon estimated energy requirements (EER) with an activity factor of 1.25 (active) as calculated according to Table 11, EER Equations.
[Rationale: A viable and stable food system that the crew is willing and able to consume is critical for maintaining the health of the crew. The food provided is to be of sufficient quality, quantity, and nutrient content to meet the energy demands of various activities, while accommodating each crewmember’s individual needs and desires. Guidelines for nutrition requirements are documented in the reference document Nutrition Requirements, Standards, and Operating Bands for Exploration Missions.]
Table 11—EER Equations
|Nominal Metabolic Intake
EER for men 19 years old and older
EER for women 19 years old and older
22.214.171.124 EVA Food Caloric Content
[V2 7004] For crewmembers performing EVA operations, the food system shall provide an additional 837 kJ (200 kcal) per EVA hour above nominal metabolic intake as defined by section 126.96.36.199, Food Caloric Content [V2 7003], in this NASA Technical Standard.
[Rationale: Additional energy and nutrients are necessary during EVA operations, as crewmember energy expenditure is greater during those activities. Consumption of an additional 837 kJ (200 kcal), similar in nutrient content to the rest of the diet, per hour of EVA would allow a crewmember to maintain lean body weight during the course of the mission. This is the metabolic energy replacement requirement for moderate to heavy EVA tasks.]
188.8.131.52 Food Macronutrients
[V2 7005] The diet for each crewmember shall include macronutrients in the quantities listed in Table 12, Macronutrient Guidelines for Spaceflight.
[Rationale: Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories for energy and include carbohydrates, protein, and fat. These macronutrients are necessary to maintain the health of the crew.]
Table 12 - Macronutrient Guidelines for Spaceflight
|Nutrients||Daily Dietary Intake|
|And ≤35% of the total daily energy intake|
|And 2/3 of the amount in the form of animal protein and 1/3 in the form of vegetable protein|
|Carbohydrate||50–55% of the total daily energy intake|
|Fat||25–35% of the total daily energy intake|
|Ω-6 fatty acids||14 g|
|Ω-3 fatty acids||1.1–1.6 g|
|Saturated fat||<7% of total daily energy intake|
|Trans fatty acids||<1% of total daily energy intake|
* This field is only expressed in metric units of measure.
184.108.40.206 Food Micronutrients
[V2 7006] The diet for each crewmember shall include micronutrients in the quantities listed in Table 13, Micronutrient Guidelines for Spaceflight.
[Rationale: Micronutrients are nutrients that the human body needs in smaller amounts and include vitamins and minerals. These micronutrients are necessary to maintain the health of the crew.]
Table 13 - Micronutrient Guidelines for Spaceflight
|Vitamin or Mineral||Daily Dietary Intake*|
|Vitamin A||700–900 μg|
|Vitamin D||25 μg|
|Vitamin K||Women: 90 μg|
|Men: 120 μg|
|Vitamin E||15 mg|
|Vitamin C||90 mg|
|Vitamin B12||2.4 μg|
|Vitamin B6||1.7 mg|
|Thiamin||Women: 1.1 mg|
|Men: 1.2 mg|
|Niacin||16 mg niacin equivalents|
|Pantothenic acid||5 mg|
|And ≤1.5 x calcium intake|
|Magnesium||Women: 320 mg|
|Men: 420 mg|
|And ≤350 mg from supplements only|
|Manganese||Women: 1.8 mg|
|Men: 2.3 mg|
|Fluoride||Women: 3 mg|
|Men: 4 mg|
Note: Compiled from Nutrition Requirements, Standards, and Operating Bands for Exploration Missions, JSC NASA Nutritional Biochemistry Group.
* This field is only expressed in metric units of measure.
220.127.116.11 Food Microorganism Levels
[V2 7007] Microorganism levels in the food shall not exceed those specified in Table 14, Food Microorganism Levels (JSC-16888, Microbiology Operations Plan for Spaceflight).
[Rationale: To maintain the health and safety of the crew, it is necessary to control microorganism growth.]
Table 14—Food Microorganism Levels
|Food Production Area||Samples Collected||Limits|
|Surfaces||3 surfaces sampleda||3000 Colony Forming Units/ft2 (total aerobic count)|
|Packaging Materials||Before use||3000 CFU per Pouch, Septum, 25 cm2 or base|
|Air||1 sample of 320 L monthly||113 CFU/320 L (total aerobic count)|
|Non-Thermostabilizedb||Total aerobic count||20,000 CFU/g for any single sample (or if any two samples from a lot exceed 10,000 CFU/g)|
|Enterobacteriaceae||100 CFU/g for any single sample (or if any two samples from a lot exceed 10 CFU/g). No detected serious or severe hazard human enteric pathogenic organisms|
|Salmonella||0 CFU/g for any single sample|
|Yeasts and molds||1000 CFU/g for any single sample (or if any two samples from a lot exceed 100 CFU/g or if any two samples from a lot exceed 10 CFU/g Aspergillis flavus)|
|Commercially Sterile Products (thermostabilized and irradiated)||No sample submitted for microbiological analysis||100% inspection for package integrity|
a. Samples collected only on days that food facility is in operation. Additional environmental samples will be collected when there is a 1-hour break in activity, or after 5 hours of continuous work.
b. Food samples considered “finished” products that do not require additional repackaging are tested only for total aerobic counts.
7.1.2 Food Preparation, Consumption, and Cleanup
18.104.22.168 Food Preparation
[V2 7008] The system shall provide the capability for preparation, consumption, and stowage of food.
[Rationale: A viable and stable food system that the crew is willing and able to consume is critical for maintaining the health of the crew. Preparation addresses the heating of the food, if necessary, and the use of whatever equipment is required. Consumption relies on utensils or implements such as forks or spoons, a method to open packaging, or a method to rehydrate. Stowage is needed for the food, as well as all the implements for preparation and consumption.]
22.214.171.124 Food Preparation and Cleanup
[V2 7009] The food system shall allow the crew to unstow supplies, prepare meals, and clean up for all crewmembers within the allotted meal schedule.
[Rationale: Meal preparation and cleanup activity planning takes into account previous spaceflight lessons learned, the water delivery and food heating systems, stowage configuration, and desire of the crew to dine together. This is to help ensure that mission goals, objectives, and timelines are not negatively impacted.]
126.96.36.199 Food Contamination Control
[V2 7010] The food storage, preparation, and consumption areas shall be designed and located to protect against cross-contamination between food and the environment.
[Rationale: Contamination can occur from a number of sources, including proximity to cross-contamination, toxic materials, and the growth of microorganisms. Food is to be processed properly and stored to control or eliminate microbiological concerns. Furthermore, it is critical for crew physical and psychological health that waste management systems (such as food waste, body waste, personal hygiene, exercise) are separate from food preparation, stowage, and consumption activities to protect from cross-contamination. Spaceflight lessons learned indicate this has been an issue during Apollo and ISS missions.]
188.8.131.52 Food and Beverage Heating
[V2 7011] The system shall provide the capability to heat food and beverages to a temperature appropriate for the given item.
[Rationale: Heating is necessary for the subjective quality of food. Heating food and liquid enhances the palatability of some items, which is important for psychological health, as well as for ensuring that crewmembers eat the food provided. Maintaining the temperature of rehydrated food helps prevent microbial growth. The vehicle is to provide the ability to heat dehydrated and non-rehydrated foods.]
184.108.40.206 Dining Accommodations
[V2 7012] Crewmembers shall have the capability to dine together.
[Rationale: Dining together has been shown to support the crew’s psychological health and well-being. The food system should account for the volume for all the crew to prepare their meal, gather simultaneously, and accommodate any equipment needed to restrain the food and implements, including utensils necessary for dining. The design and layout of the dining space should be based on a functional task analysis. The specific volume and layout are to meet the requirements defined in Section 8, Architecture, in this NASA Technical Standard. Additional guidance for design for habitable volume is provided in Chapter 8 of the HIDH.]
220.127.116.11 Food System Waste
[V2 7013] The system shall provide readily accessible trash collection and control of food system waste.
[Rationale: Food trash is to be considered in the overall plan for all types of trash. It is important to manage any food waste to control odors and microorganism growth. Proximity to the food preparation and consumption location facilitates ease of use and efficiency.]
18.104.22.168 Food Spill Control
[V2 7014] The system shall provide the ability to control and remove food particles and spills.
[Rationale: The ability to clean spills or food particles in any area of the vehicle helps to minimize contamination of the spacecraft. Contamination of the food system might occur if spills are not contained, and the physical debris of food particles can jeopardize the safety and health of the crew.]
22.214.171.124 Food System Cleaning and Sanitizing
[V2 7015] The system shall provide methods for cleaning and sanitizing food facilities, equipment, and work areas.
[Rationale: The ability to clean and disinfect the food system areas helps to minimize microbial contamination of the food system. Contamination of the food system by physical debris can jeopardize the safety and health of the crew.]
iNASA STD-3001 is currently pending approval for 2021 revisions. Note the following corrections:
- Section 126.96.36.199 (page 76), and also in the Nutrition Requirements, Standards, and Operating Bands for Exploration Missions, pages 13, 14 & 117, the formula to calculate EER for men >19 yo is: [EER (kcal/day) = 662 – 9.53 x Age [y] + 1.25 x (15.9 x Body Mass [kg] + 539.6 x Height [m]) ].
- Section 188.8.131.52 (page 79) correction to the Latin name of the fungi Aspergillus flavus.